Bulk cargo refers to unpackaged commodities, typically raw materials like grains, minerals, or chemicals, transported in large quantities. It is directly loaded into ships, railway cars, or tanker trucks, without packaging. It is characterized by its handling in large volumes, and therefore requires specialized equipment and facilities for loading and unloading, making use of specialized transportation methods such as ships, trucks, or freight trains.
Bulk cargo can be categorized into two main types: liquid bulk cargo and dry bulk cargo. Liquid bulk includes items like petroleum products and chemicals, while dry bulk encompasses grains, minerals, building materials, and fertilizers. A more detailed list of items under each type of bulk cargo is as follows:
Dry Bulk Cargo:
Agricultural products: such as soybeans, sugar, and coffee.
Building materials: including cement, sand, gravel, and gypsum.
Fertilizers: such as potash, and phosphates.
Grains: such as wheat, rice, corn, and barley.
Metals and ores: including steel, copper, and nickel.
Minerals: coal, iron ore, bauxite.
Liquid Bulk Cargo:
Chemicals: such as ammonia, chlorine, or industrial alcohols.
Liquid food products: including wine, juices, and vegetable oils.
Petroleum products: like gasoline and diesel.